Fundamental Culturology Centre
The main aspiration of the Greeks was aspiring to the beautiful and deserving life of a human being which was didactic as it is, so they need not moral as it is. The “art of life” as self-control in any states and situations was the first.
Sergeev K.A. Filosofiia i stanovltnie metafizicheskogo myshlenia // Metafizika / pod red. B.I. Lipskogo, B.V. Markova, Iu.N. Solonina. SPb, 2008, p. 32.
In “Phenomenology of Spirit” he [Hegel] constructs the experience of “deranged” reason. On the base of Hegel, Marx supports the idea of superiority of instrumental reason which comes to itself in the philosophy of life…. In the works of Schopenhauer and Marx being-as-consciousness transforms into being-as-will, after Metaphysics of labour of Marx it transforms into being-as-life which is defined by will for power, will for might, will to re-evaluate the values of life as it is. The result of life is culture. So from the 20th Century understanding being-as-culture has become dominate. Now human life depends on culture. Culture represents being as it is.
Culture as it is ascends to the sphere of the highest aims. It claims itself as preservation and development of the highest values of human beings. The idea of material and spiritual values acquires a self-contained meaning. After Kant philosophers began to speak of “cultural values” of antiquity or medieval “mental values”. Values establish “alibi” for human beings in the world. (M. M. Bachtin)
Sergeev K.A. Filosofia Kanta i novoevropeiskaia metafizicheskaia pozitsiia // Kant I. Traktaty. - SPb. - Nauka. - P. 145 – 146.